Testosterone propionate cycle | 100% Good Quality

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Testosterone propionate cycle, sold under the brand name Testoviron among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men. It has also been used to treat breast cancer in women.

Description

General Information | Testosterone propionate cycle

Testosterone propionate cycle, sold under the brand name Testoviron among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.[4][1][5] It has also been used to treat breast cancer in women. It is given by injection into muscle usually once every two to three days.

Side effects of testosterone propionate include symptoms of masculinization like acneincreased hair growthvoice changes, and increased sexual desire. The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).  It has strong androgenic effects and moderate anabolic effects, which make it useful for producing masculinization and suitable for androgen replacement therapy. Testosterone propionate is a testosterone ester and a relatively short-acting prodrug of testosterone in the body. Because of this, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of testosterone.

Testosterone propionate was discovered in 1936 and was introduced for medical use in 1937. It was the first testosterone ester to be marketed, and was the major form of testosterone used in medicine until about 1960. The introduction of longer-acting testosterone esters like testosterone enanthatetestosterone cypionate, and testosterone undecanoate starting in the 1950s resulted in testosterone propionate mostly being superseded. As such, it is rarely used today. In addition to its medical use, testosterone propionate is used to improve physique and performance. The drug is a controlled substance in many countries and so non-medical use is generally illicit.

Mechanism of Action

Endogenous testosterone is responsible for sexual maturation at all stages of development throughout life. Synthetically, it is prepared from cholesterol. The function of androgens in male development begins in the fetus, is crucial during puberty, and continues to play an important role in the adult male. Women also secrete small amounts of testosterone from the ovaries. The secretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex is insufficient to maintain male sexuality. Testosterone propionate cycle.

Increased androgen plasma concentrations suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone (reducing endogenous testosterone), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone by a negative-feedback mechanism. Testosterone also affects the formation of erythropoietin, the balance of calcium, and blood glucose. Testosterone propionate cycle.

Androgens have a high lipid solubility, enabling them to rapidly enter cells of target tissues. Within the cells, testosterone undergoes enzymatic conversion to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone and forms a loosely bound complex with cystolic receptors. Androgen action arises from the initiation of transcription and cellular changes in the nucleus brought about by this steroid-receptor complex. Testosterone propionate cycle.

Normally, endogenous androgens stimulate RNA polymerase, resulting in an increased protein production.These proteins are responsible for normal male sexual development, including the growth and maturation of the prostate, seminal vesicle, penis, and scrotum. During puberty, androgens cause a sudden increase in growth and development of muscle, with redistribution of body fat.

Changes also take place in the larynx and vocal cords, deepening the voice. Puberty is completed with beard development and growth of body hair. Fusion of the epiphyses and termination of growth is also governed by the androgens, as is the maintenance of spermatogenesis. When endogenous androgens are unavailable, use of exogenous androgens are necessary for normal male growth and development. Testosterone propionate cycle.

Pharmacokinetics

Testosterone is administered intramuscularly (IM); via subcutaneous injection; to the skin as a topical gel, solution, ointment or transdermal systems for transdermal absorption; by implantation of long-acting pellets, or; via buccal systems. Testosterone propionate cycle.

In serum, testosterone is bound to protein. It has a high affinity for sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and a low affinity for albumin. The albumin-bound portion freely dissociates. The affinity for SHBG changes throughout life. It is high during prepuberty, declines during adolescence and adult life, then rises again in old age. The active metabolite DHT has a greater affinity for SHBG than testosterone. Elimination half-life is 10—100 minutes and is dependent on the amount of free testosterone in the plasma. Testosterone propionate cycle.

Testosterone is metabolized primarily in the liver to various 17-keto steroids. It is a substrate for hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme.1 Estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are the major active metabolites, and DHT undergoes further metabolism. Testosterone activity appears to depend on formation of DHT, which binds to cytosol receptor proteins. Further metabolism of DHT takes place in reproductive tissues. About 90% of an intramuscular testosterone dose is excreted in the urine as conjugates of glucuronic and sulfuric acids. About 6% is excreted in the feces, largely unconjugated. There is considerable variation in the half-life of testosterone as reported in the literature, ranging from 10 to 100 minutes.2 Testosterone propionate cycle.

Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP3A4, P-gp

Testosterone is a substrate for CYP3A4 and is also both transported by and an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport.13

Route-Specific Pharmacokinetics:

Intramuscular Route: Parenteral testosterone formulations have been developed that reduce the rate of testosterone secretion, with esters being less polar and slowly absorbed from intramuscular sites. Esters have a duration of action of 2—4 weeks following IM administration. The esters are hydrolyzed to free testosterone, which is inactivated in the liver.

 

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